Background Literature

Albergel J., Collinet J., Zante P., Hamrouni H., 2010. Role of the Mediterranean forest in soil and water conservation. In Birot Y. Gracia C. and Palahi M. editors: “Water for forests and people in the Mediterranean: a challenging balance”, EFIMED, Barcelona.

Alizoti, P.G., Kilimis, K., Gallios, P., 2010. Temporal and spatial variation of flowering among Pinus nigra Arn. clones under changing climatic conditions. For. Ecol. and Mgt. 259(4): 786-797.

Aussenac G., 2002. Ecology and ecophysiology of circum-Mediterranean firs in the context of climatechange.Ann.For.Sci. 59, ©INRA, EDPSciences: 823–8322002.DOI: 10.1051/forest:2002080

Besacier Ch., Ducci F., Malagnoux M., Souvannavong O. (eds.), 2011. Status of the Experimental Network of Mediterranean Forest Gemnetic Resources. CRA SEL, Arezzo and FAO – Silva Mediterranea, Rome, Italy: 208 p.

Brazier, C.M., 1996. Phytophthora cinnamomi and oak decline in southern Europe. Environmental constraints including climate change. Ann. Sci. For., 53, Elsevier/INRA: 347-358.

Cuttelod A., Garcia N., Abdul Malak D. et al.,2008. The Mediterranean: a biodiversity hotspot under threat. In J.C. Vié , C. Hilton-Taylor & S.N. Stuart (eds). The 2008 review of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Gland, IUCN.

Ducci F., Fusaro E., Lucci S., Ricciotti L., 2007. Strategies for finalizing Conifers experimental test stothe production of improved reproductive materials. In: Proc. of the Intern. Workshop MEDPINE 3 “Conservation,Regeneration and Restoration of Mediterranean Pines and their Ecosystems”, (ed. V.Leone e R. Lovreglio), CIHEAM/IAMB, Bari 26 – 30 sett. 2005:99 – 104.

Ducci F., De Rogatis A., (eds), 2009. Risorse Genetiche Forestali in Italia. (Forest Genetic Resources inItaly). Centro di Ricerca per la Selvicoltura, Arezzo. ISBN: 978-88-901923-3-3: 180 p.

Ducci F., 2009. Conservation of Mediterranean Forest Genetic Resources in the context of the Climate Change – Genetic Diversity a key issue for Mediterranean Forest adaptation to Climate Change.Working Group on “Forest Genetic resources in the Mediterranean region”, Fao Silva Mediterranea, Rome: 10 p.

Eckert CG, Samis KE, Lougheed C. 2008. Genetic variation across species’s geographical ranges: the central-marginal hypothesis and beyond. Molecular Ecology 17: 1170–1188.

Eriksson, G., Namkoong, G., and Roberds, J.H., 1993. Dynamic gene conservation for uncertain futures. Forest Ecology and Management 62: 15-37.

Eriksson, G., 1996. Evolutionary genetics and conservation of forest tree genetic resources. Turok J., G. Eriksson, Kleinschmit J., and S. Canger, compilers. Noble Hardwood Network. Report of the firstmeeting, 24 – 27 March 1996, Esherode, Germany. IPGRI, Rome:159 – 167.

European Environment Agency. 2008. Biogeographical regions of Europe. Web site:

EFIMED. 2009. Mediterranean Forest Research Agenda 2010 – 2020.

Et-tobi M.; M’hirit O. & Benzyane M. (209). Changements climatiques et dépérissement : Argument nouveau outil pour reforme de la sylviculture des cédraies au Maroc. Ann. Rech. For. Au Maroc T 41, pp.:27-47.

Fady B., Conord C., 2010. Macroecologicalpatterns of species and genetic diversity in vascular plants of the Mediterranean Basin. Diversity & Distributions, 16(1), 53-64.

Fady B., 2005. Is there really more biodiversity in Mediterranean forest ecosystems? Taxon, 54(4), 905-910.

Fady B., Médail F., 2004. Mediterranean Forest Ecosystems. In : J. Burley, J. Evans and J.A. Youngquist edit., Encyclopedia of Forest Science. Elsevier, Londres, 1403-1414.

FAO. 2001. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000, FAO Forestry Paper 140, Rome

FAO. 2006. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005: Progress towards sustainable forest management, FAO Forestry Paper 147, Rome FAO. 2010. Global Forest Resources Assessment web site: FRA web site:

FAO. 2010. National data for the Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010, FAO, Rome National Forest Monitoring and Assessment web site:
Fao, 2006. FAO and Climate. 10.

Gaston K., 2009. Geographic range limits: achieving synthesis. Proc. R. Soc. B 276, 1395–1406.

Geburek T, Konrad H, 2008. Why the conservation of forest genetic resources has not worked. Conservation Biology 22(2), 267-274.

Grivet D, Sebastiani F, Gonzalez-Martinez SC, Vendramin GG, 2009. Patterns of polymorphism resulting from long-range colonization in the Mediterranean conifer Aleppo pine. New Phytologist, 184(4), 1016-1028.

Grivet D, Sebastiani F, Alía R, Bataillon T, Torre S, Zabal-Aguirre M, Vendramin GG, González-Martínez SC, 2010. Molecular footprints of local adaptation in two Mediterranean conifers. Molecular Biology and Evolution (in press).

IPCC, 2007. Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment. Core Writing Team, Pachauri, R.K. and Reisinger, A. (Eds.). IPCC, Geneva, Switzerland. pp 104.

Iverson L.R., Prasad A.M., 1998. Preicting abundance of 80 tree species following climate change in the eastern United States Ecological Monographs, 68(4), 1998, pp. 465–485. q 1998 by the Ecological Society of America.

Kaetzel, R., Muench, E. 2009. Fortschrittsbericht der Bund-Laender-Arbeitsgruppe „Forstliche Genressourcen und Forstsaatgutrecht“. Bundesanstalt für Landwirtschaft und Ernaehrung, Bonn, 66 pp.
Karnosky D.F, Ceulemans R., Scarascia-Mugnozza, G.F, Innes J.L ., 2001. The impact of carbon dioxid and other greenhouse gases on forest ecosystems Third report of the IUFRO Task Force on environmental change. CABI Publishing (IUFRO Research Series 8).

Konkin, D., Hopkins, K. (2009). Learning to deal with climate change and catastrophic forest disturbances. Unasylva, 60, 17-23.

Koskela J., Buck A., Teissier du Cros E., editors, 2007. Climate change and forest genetic diversity. Implications for soustainable forest management in Europe. Bioversity International International, Rome, Italy: 111 p.

Lefèvre, F. 2004. Human impacts on forest genetic resources in the temperate zone: an updated review. Forest Ecology and Management 197:257-271.

Lefèvre F, Collin E, De Cuyper B, Fady B, Koskela J, Turok J, von Wühlisch G., 2008. European forest genetic resources: status of current knowledge and conservation priorities. In: Maxted N. et al. (eds) Crop Wild Relative Conservation and Use, CABI Pub., 178-194.

Lenormand, T., 2002. Gene flow and the limits to natural selection. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 17:183-189.

Lesica, P., and F. W. Allendorf. 1995. When are peripheral populations valuable for conservation? Conserv. Biol. 9(4):753–760.

Màtyàs C., 2000. Riding on a wave of anxious concern: genetic implication of expected climate instability at the southern forest limits. In: J. Turok and Th. Geburek eds., International collaboration in forest genetic resources: the role of Europe,Proc. Of the 2nd Euforgen Steering Committee Meeting, 26 – 29 November 1998, Vienna, Austria, IPGRI, Rome: 44 – 47.

Màtyàs C., 2007. What do field trials tell about the future use of Forest Reproductive Material?. In: Koskela J., Buck A., Teissier du Cros E., editors, 2007. Climate change and forest genetic diversity. Implications for soustainable forest management in Europe. Bioversity International, Rome, Italy: 53 – 68.

Matyas C., Vendramin G.G., Fady B., 2009. Forests at the limit: evolutionary – genetic consequences of environmental changes at the receding (xeric) edge of distribution. Report from a research workshop. Annals of Forest Science 66 (8), Article Number: 800.

Menzel A., Sparks T,H. , Estrella N., Koch E., Aasa A., Ahas R., Alm-Ku Bler K., Bissolli P.,Braslavska O.,
Briede A., Chmielewski F.M., Crepinsek Z., Curnel Y., Dahl A., De Fila C., Donnelly A., Filella Y., Jatczak K., Maege F., Mestre A. , Nordli Ø., Penuelas J., Pirinen P., Remisova V. , Scheifijnger H., Striz M., Susnika A., Van Vliet A.J:H., Wielgolask F.-E., Zach S., Zust A., 2006. European phenological response to climate change matches the warming pattern. Global Change Biology (2006) 12, 1969–1976, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01193.x

Mokrim A. (2009). Dépérissement du cèdre de l’Atlas : ambiance climatique et bilan de la croissance radiale Ann. Rech. For. Au Maroc T 41, pp.: 48-68.

Montero, G. and Cañellas, I. 1999. Sustainable management of Mediterranean forests in Spain Unasylva – No. 197 – Mediterranean Forests (1999/2)

Moriondo M. and Bindi M. , 2007. Impact of climate change on the phenology of typical Mediterranean crops. Italian Journal of Agrometeorology xxx (3) 2007: 5 – 12.

Perini L., Salvati L., Ceccarelli T., Motisi A., Marra F.P., Caruso T., 2007. Atlante Agroclimatico, scenari di cambiamento agro-climatico. CRA, Uff. centr. Ecologia Agraria, Roma: 81 p. Plan Bleu. 2009. State of Environment in the Mediterranean:

Pitelka L. F., 2008. The plant migration workshop group,1997. Plant migration and climate change. American Scientist, 85:464 – 473.

Pigliucci M., 2001. Phenotypic Plasticity: beyond nature and nurture. The Johns Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore and London: 328 p.PNUE-PAM-CAR/ASP, 2008. Impact des changements climatiques sur la biodiversité en Mer Méditerranée. Tunis, CAR/ASP. pp.: 1-62.

Quezel R., 2001. Biodiversité végétale des forets méditerranéennes ; son evolution d’ici à trente ans. Forét Méditerranéenne, pp : 2-8.

Quézel P. & Médail F. 2003. Ecologie et biogéographie des forêts du bassin méditerranéen. Elsevier (Collection Environnement), Paris, 573 p.

Schlichting C. D., 1986. The evolution of Phenotypic Plasticity in plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematic, 17: 667

Saket, M. 2002. Gaps in national-level information on forests and trees in developing countries, Unasylva, vol 53, 2202/3

Savolainen, O., T. Pyhäjärvi, T. Knürr. 2007. Gene flow and local adaptation in trees. Annual Review in Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 38:595-619.

Scarascia-Mugnozza, G., Oswald, H., Piussi, P., and Radoglou, K. 2000. Forests of the Mediterranean region: gaps in knowledge and research needs. For. Ecol. Manage. 132(1): 97–109.

Silva Mediterranea. 2010. Background document for the Ministerial Conference on Food security, Agriculture and Rural Development of the Union for the Mediterranean 15-16 45. 2010. Silva Mediterranea Newsletter, Issue 3, April 2010. FAO, Rome

Simula, M. 2009. Towards Defining Forest Degradation: Comparative Analysis of Existing Definitions. Forest Resources Assessment Working Paper 154, FAO, Rome

Smulders M.J.M., Cobben M.M.P., Arens P, Verboom J, 2009. Landscape genetics of fragmented forests: anticipating climate change by facilitating migration. iForest 2: 128-132 [online: 2009-07-30] URL:

Somot S., 2005. Modélisation climatique du bassin méditerranéen : variabilité et scénarios de changement climatique. Ph-D Thesis. Toulouse, Université Paul Sabatier.

Sultan S.E., 2000. Phenotypic plasticity for plant development, function and life history. Trends Plant Sci. 5: 537-542. doi:10.1016/S1360-1385(00)01797-0.

UNECE. 2010. State of Europe’s Forests web site:
Vendramin G.G., Fady B., González-Martínez S.C., Hu F.S., Scotti I., Sebastiani F., Soto A., Petit R.J., 2008. Genetically depauperate but widespread: the case of an emblematic Mediterranean pine. Evolution, 62(3), 680-688.

XIaoqiu C., Bing H., Rong Y., 2005. Spatial and temporal variation of phenological growing season and climate change impacts in temperate eastern China Global Change Biology (2005) 11, 1118–1130, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2005.00974.x