Rear edge marginality – photogallery

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Ailing cedar forests in the Eastern Middle Atlas (Morocco)
©Abderraman Aafi 

Degraded stands of juniper in the Eastern Middle Atlas, Morocco  ©Abderraman Aafi

Degraded stands of juniper in the Eastern Middle Atlas, Morocco
©Abderraman Aafi 

Degraded stands of juniper and oak in the Eastern High Atlas, Morocco ©Abderraman Aafi

Degraded stands of juniper and oak in the Eastern High Atlas, Morocco
©Abderraman Aafi

Green oak ailing in the Eastern High Atlas, Morocco  ©Abderraman Aafi

Green oak ailing in the Eastern High Atlas, Morocco
©Abderraman Aafi

Degraded stands of oak and juniper in the Eastern High Atlas, Morocco ©Abderraman Aafi

Degraded stands of oak and juniper in the Eastern High Atlas, Morocco
©Abderraman Aafi

Betula pendula. Site: Manziana (province of Rome, Italy), altitude 350 m a.s.l.), growing near a volcanic crater lake. Protected area (SIC), 2015 ©F. Ducci, G. de Dato, M.C. Monteverdi

Betula pendula. Site: Manziana (province of Rome, Italy), altitude 350 m a.s.l.), growing near a volcanic crater lake. Protected area (SIC), 2015 ©F. Ducci, G. de Dato, M.C. Monteverdi

Betula pendula. Site: Manziana (province of Rome, Italy), altitude 350 m a.s.l.), growing near a volcanic crater lake. Protected area (SIC), 2015 ©F. Ducci, G. de Dato, M.C. Monteverdi

Betula pendula. Site: Manziana (province of Rome, Italy), altitude 350 m a.s.l.), growing near a volcanic crater lake. Protected area (SIC), 2015 ©F. Ducci, G. de Dato, M.C. Monteverdi

Betula pendula. Site: Manziana (province of Rome, Italy), altitude 350 m a.s.l.), growing near a volcanic crater lake. Protected area (SIC), 2015 ©F. Ducci, G. de Dato, M.C. Monteverdi

Betula pendula. Site: Manziana (province of Rome, Italy), altitude 350 m a.s.l.), growing near a volcanic crater lake. Protected area (SIC), 2015 ©F. Ducci, G. de Dato, M.C. Monteverdi

Betula pendula. Site: Manziana (province of Rome, Italy), altitude 350 m a.s.l.), growing near a volcanic crater lake. Protected area (SIC), 2015 ©F. Ducci, G. de Dato, M.C. Monteverdi

Betula pendula. Site: Manziana (province of Rome, Italy), altitude 350 m a.s.l.), growing near a volcanic crater lake. Protected area (SIC), 2015 ©F. Ducci, G. de Dato, M.C. Monteverdi

Betula pendula. Site: Manziana (province of Rome, Italy), altitude 350 m a.s.l.), growing near a volcanic crater lake. Protected area (SIC), 2015 ©F. Ducci, G. de Dato, M.C. Monteverdi

Betula pendula. Site: Manziana (province of Rome, Italy), altitude 350 m a.s.l.), growing near a volcanic crater lake. Protected area (SIC), 2015 ©F. Ducci, G. de Dato, M.C. Monteverdi

MaP population of Betula pendula of Fonte allo Squarto, Pratomagno Mt., Arezzo, Tuscany ©F. Ducci

MaP population of Betula pendula of Fonte allo Squarto, Pratomagno Mt., Arezzo, Tuscany
©F. Ducci

MaP population of Betula pendula of Fonte allo Squarto, Pratomagno Mt., Arezzo, Tuscany ©F. Ducci

MaP population of Betula pendula of Fonte allo Squarto, Pratomagno Mt., Arezzo, Tuscany
©F. Ducci

MaP population of Betula pendula of Fonte allo Squarto, Pratomagno Mt., Arezzo, Tuscany ©F. Ducci

MaP population of Betula pendula of Fonte allo Squarto, Pratomagno Mt., Arezzo, Tuscany
©F. Ducci

MaP population of Betula pendula of Fonte allo Squarto, Pratomagno Mt., Arezzo, Tuscany ©F. Ducci

MaP population of Betula pendula of Fonte allo Squarto, Pratomagno Mt., Arezzo, Tuscany
©F. Ducci

MaP population of Betula pendula of Fonte allo Squarto, Pratomagno Mt., Arezzo, Tuscany ©F. Ducci

MaP population of Betula pendula of Fonte allo Squarto, Pratomagno Mt., Arezzo, Tuscany
©F. Ducci

MaP population of Betula pendula of Fonte allo Squarto, Pratomagno Mt., Arezzo, Tuscany ©F. Ducci

MaP population of Betula pendula of Fonte allo Squarto, Pratomagno Mt., Arezzo, Tuscany
©F. Ducci

MaP population of Betula pendula of Fonte allo Squarto, Pratomagno Mt., Arezzo, Tuscany ©F. Ducci

MaP population of Betula pendula of Fonte allo Squarto, Pratomagno Mt., Arezzo, Tuscany
©F. Ducci

Pinus peuce, population at the rear edge of the distribution area (Babino polje - Treskavac, Montenegro) ©Milic Curovic

Pinus peuce, population at the rear edge of the distribution area (Babino polje – Treskavac, Montenegro)
©Milic Curovic

PIcea abies, population at the rear edge of the distribution area (Kovac, Montenegro) ©Milic Curovic

PIcea abies, population at the rear edge of the distribution area (Kovac, Montenegro)
©Milic Curovic

Picea abies, population at the rear edge of the distribution area (Ljubisnja, Montenegro) ©Milic Curovic

Picea abies, population at the rear edge of the distribution area (Ljubisnja, Montenegro)
©Milic Curovic

Picea abies, population at the rear edge of the distribution area (Kovac, Montenegro) ©Milic Curovic

Picea abies, population at the rear edge of the distribution area (Kovac, Montenegro)
©Milic Curovic

Pinus silvestris, population at the rear edge of the distribution area (Gornji Saranci, Montenegro) ©Milic Curovic

Pinus silvestris, population at the rear edge of the distribution area (Gornji Saranci, Montenegro)
©Milic Curovic

Cedrus atlantica, Ifrane, Morocco ©Hassan Sbay

Cedrus atlantica, Ifrane, Morocco
©Hassan Sbay

Cedrus atlantica, Ifrane, Morocco ©Hassan Sbay

Cedrus atlantica, Ifrane, Morocco
©Hassan Sbay

Cedrus atlantica, Ifrane, Morocco ©Hassan Sbay

Cedrus atlantica, Ifrane, Morocco
©Hassan Sbay

Cedrus atlantica, Ifrane, Morocco ©Hassan Sbay

Cedrus atlantica, Ifrane, Morocco
©Hassan Sbay

Cedrus atlantica, Ifrane, Morocco ©Hassan Sbay

Cedrus atlantica, Ifrane, Morocco
©Hassan Sbay

P_uninata stand: One of the most southern (42º 17' N) population of mountain pine (Pinus uncinata) adapted to drought and higher temperatures. Sierra de Guara (Spain) ©Eduardo Notivol

P_uninata stand: One of the most southern (42º 17′ N) population of mountain pine (Pinus uncinata) adapted to drought and higher temperatures. Sierra de Guara (Spain)
©Eduardo Notivol 

Phoenix dactylifera L., 1753  Oasis of Umm Alma Lake (or Umm Al-Maa Lake), Sahara, Libya, 2009. No coordinates available. CREA FOR, Italy  ©Mirella Mazzierli

Phoenix dactylifera L., 1753
Oasis of Umm Alma Lake (or Umm Al-Maa Lake), Sahara, Libya, 2009.
No coordinates available.
CREA FOR, Italy ©Mirella Mazzierli
The Palaeohydrology and Palaeoclimate of Lake Megafezzan: A Giant Palaeolake in the Fezzan Basin, Libyan Sahara. The ancient palaeolakes of Fezzan, discovered in the Wadi Shati region, were first studied by Petit-Maire et al., (1980), and then by Thiedig et al., (2000), White et al., (2001), Brooks et al., (2003) and Drake et al., (in press). Their preliminary conclusion was that Fezzan was a giant closed basin with a very large lake, which scientists named: ‘Lake Megafezzan’, with size estimates range from 76,250 (Brooks et al., 2003) to150,000 km2 (Thiedig et al., 2000).