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Marginal/peripheral (MaP) forest populations are at the edges of species ranges and contain an original genetic diversity due to unsuitable conditions for survival. The effects of climate change are likely to be stronger and more rapid in MaP populations than elsewhere.

Studying adaptive processes in MaP populations is crucial and of mutual interest for European and non-European countries for understanding the evolution of species and developing gene pool (FGR) conservation, management strategies and networks to cope with global change.

These populations are not only threatened by modern climate changes but also by other disturbances arising from human activities and they may prove invaluable for adapting the European forestry sector. Because of their millennia-long history of adaptation to environmental changes, FGR growing in Europe may prove invaluable for adapting the forestry sector. These MaP populations are not only threatened by ongoing climate change but also by other disturbances arising from human activities.